November 4th – November 11th

The dairy cow breeding board is filling up. 

As much as I hate to write it, it did rain quite a bit again this week, pushing conditions on the farm even further into the mud. The sheep seem to be taking advantage of the dry indoor space that we opened up for them last weekend, and after scraping their yard with the tractor this weekend, I am feeling a bit better about their situation. We also have some nice cold weather in the ten day forecast, so there is some chance that all this wet and mud might just freeze into a nice firm surface. Everything off the hard roads is dangerously soft, and any necessary drives onto the pastures leave muddy ruts and damage. We cannot drive out onto the pastures to spread manure in these conditions, we cannot access the pasture edges for tree clearing, and the turkeys are making some really muddy spots as they continue to graze out on the pasture behind the bunkhouse. There is some rain in the long-term forecast, and some really cold weather, and we continue to wait for an extended dry period to let the ground firm up so that we can get back out onto the pastures.

In the mean time, Tyson and the student farmers have been able to continue the work of making permanent raised beds in the newly cultivated Flat Field East, forming that

IMG_7066 (1)
New raised beds in Flat Field East

beautiful well-drained soil into sets of straight rows that will be ready for planting in the spring. This work has been mostly accomplished with hand tools, and this new acreage drains really nicely, so the wetter conditions have not slowed us down too much. As we work to hone the balance of enterprises undertaken on this land, it is gratifying to see the veggies moving into acreage with rich soil and good drainage, while we move to seed new pasture in the areas that are less suitable to vegetable cultivation. Observation of the land over time and experience over a wide sweep of seasons and conditions gives us an ever clarifying understanding of the nuances of this acreage we work, and we try our best to put this growing understanding to work as we make long term plans.

We’re developing a new winter road for the dairy cows out the back of the barn. 

These November days come and go so quickly that I always start to feel a little panicked trying to get through the work of winter preparation. Early mornings are frozen, the afternoon feels like its about half an hour long, and the to-do list is full of weighty projects that our livestock and infrastructure need for a comfortable and healthy winter. We’ve got the beef winter setup just about finished, except we still need to build a new dry-hay feeder, and make a small annex to the beef winter fencing situation to accommodate the new feeder. The well at the beef winter barn continues to struggle along, periodically giving us a hundred gallons, but usually doing very little. These struggles mean that the water cube has to stay in service for the winter, and the student farmers need to keep a close eye on the weather forecast to make sure that they don’t leave the cube full of water on really cold nights. The sheep are in their winter quarters, with the rams in with the flock and hopefully doing their business, with access to pasture still in the hopes of giving them a drier place to spend time while their yard dries. The youngest layers are in the winter layer house at Maggie’s Farm, having moved in on Monday of this week. They seem to be settling in quite nicely, and their egg production continues to climb. Though they are still laying those smaller pullet sized eggs, we are counting on them to really start laying in earnest soon to supply the Maggie’s farmhouse as well as our meat CSA. The older layers are still out on pasture for one more day, and they’ll move into the winter house at Sentinel Elm Farm Monday evening. They have been laying for the past year to supply Maggie’s Farm, but they’ll keep on producing for another year, at a lower level, down the road at the kid’s farm. We culled the majority of the layers at Sentinel Elm on Sunday to make room for the new flock, and there are some massive pots of stock bubbling away in the bunkhouse kitchen right now. That delicious broth will help us all stay healthy and fit through the winter ahead! Wednesday of this week we take the lambs off to processing, and Sunday is turkey processing day. Other than the two pigs in the yard fattening up for the student farmer’s butchering class, the lambs and turkeys will mark the end of the livestock production year, and will take us down to our winter livestock population.


October 28th – November 4th

Our rain gauge has been working overtime. 

I feel awfully repetitive by now, but the rain just won’t stop here at The Farm School, and these wet conditions have moved firmly to the center of my concerns  as it relates to our livestock. In last week’s post I described a moderate stretch of dry weather that gave us the chance to till up a new field and even try to spread some manure. However, we had rain most of this past week, with a whopping two and a half inches falling Friday and Saturday, and we are back to mud and muck up and down the ridge. The dairy cows stayed in the barn for the day on Saturday, munching on dry hay and keeping out of the wet. The beef herd is in their winter quarters and can get out of the weather in their renovated barn. The laying hens and turkeys are still out on pasture, and while the layers can go into their egg-mobiles to stay dry, the turkey’s houses have no floors, and those birds are pretty exposed. They are enormous by now, and relatively water proof, but I would love to find a way to give them roosts that would get them up off the ground.

A view down over Sentinel Elm Farm

Finally we come to the sheep, whose yard has turned into a terrible muddy mess. I spent most of the day on Saturday preparing and opening up their indoor winter space, re-bedding their large feeding shed, changing their pasture fence and trying to give them as much opportunity as possible to dry out. The big concern for the sheep is their feet, which I think have been pretty consistently wet since July, and which can start to get into trouble if they don’t have the chance to dry out from time to time. My hope in opening the indoor area is that the space can stay truly dry, despite the rainy weather, and that sheep resting in there will come out with dry feet.

We lost a couple of turkeys to predators this week, so now they have a double electric fence. 
On Friday afternoon we pulled off a big shuffle with the sheep and goats, getting the rams in with the ewes and the buck in with the does. We had to get the ewes that we don’t want bred moved out of the sheep flock before the rams went in, and the does that we don’t want bred moved out of the goat flock before the buck went in, and we had to do it all in pouring rain and mud. First we put Ethel, the youngest doe, into the livestock trailer and drove her down to Maggie’s. At Maggie’s we loaded the three lambs we don’t want bred into the trailer too, and wormed and vaccinated everyone we’d caught. We then put a halter on Rubble, the big buck, and lead him out of the breeders pen. We caught both rams, treated the one with the foot injury, wormed and vaccinated both rams, and sent them into the sheep pen. With the breeders pen empty, we moved the young ewes and Ethel in, and put Rubble into the livestock trailer. Rubble rode down to Sentinel Elm Farm, we wormed

The dairy cows at dawn. 

and vaccinated him, trimmed his over-grown feet, and lead him down to the goat pen to go in with the two older does. Finally, we drove over to Dave’s house, loaded up Frank, the young buck, and two young does named Honey and Sugar. They all rode back down to Maggie’s, Frank was moved in with the big sheep flock, and Honey and Sugar went in with the young ewes and Ethel. The rams are super happy to finally be in with the sheep, and Rubble is also quite pleased to be with the does, but everyone else is taking some time to settle into their new situations. Frank, the young buck, required some additional high fencing and gates at the sheep pen since he is so much more athletic than the sheep and is so prone to jumping escapes.

Work continued this week on a fourth hoop house going up just west of the one we call the hardening-off house. This new plastic covered space will have no floor, so we’ll be

The frame of the new hoop-house going up. 

planting directly into the soil in there. This will serve like our winter greenhouse, giving us a warmer space for spring and fall growing, and a place where we can control the moisture levels directly. This will support the developing program we’re putting together in the Flat Field, giving us more acreage for intensive production.

This was the first week of the draft horse and chainsaw training component of our fall in the Learn to Farm program, with one third of the student group headed off to Fair Winds Farm in Brattleboro, one third in our woods with Bill Gerard doing The Game of Logging, and a third in the Flat Field working to get that acreage as ready for next year’s growing season as is possible before the ground freezes. This is a really rich part of the program, and a stretch when students are picking up the essential skills that will prepare them for the firewood work coming over the winter.

October 21st – October 28th

We’ve got lots of composted manure, and some lime, to spread on the pastures this fall. 

Although it has been raining off and on just about all weekend here at The Farm School, we did have a nice stretch of rain-free weather over the past week, and things had the chance to dry out a bit. Fields dried enough for some more fall cultivation, roads firmed up enough so we could get up to load ten more pigs for the ride to the slaughterhouse, and the sheep yard was hard pack again until this latest rain started. Conditions improved enough that I even made an attempt to start our fall manure spreading, with the goal of putting down the majority of our composted manure on the sheep pasture, but the manure spreader failed me. It has been limping along at a barely functional stage for the past few years, forcing us to load it lighter and lighter to actually spin, and despite valiant efforts to rehab the machine both of the past two winters, it finally stopped completely on Thursday morning. We pulled the back end apart Thursday and Friday, diagnosed what we believe the major problem was, and have it back together ready for another go at it next week. The whole unit is really getting on in years, and may need to get replaced some time soon, but we’re trying to keep it going for as long as we can.

We sent six cows from the beef herd off to the slaughterhouse on Sunday of last week,

The slip recording tag numbers for beef cows going in for processing. 

and those animals will restock the supplies in the freezer for both CSA distribution and cooking in the bunkhouse and at Maggie’s Farm. The beef herd is finishing up the last bit of green pasture this weekend, and then they’ll head into winter quarters early next week. We have been putting the finishing touches on their renovated winter barn, and stocking up on the straw that we use for their bedding. I think things are looking good for a pretty cozy setup in there, and the production of a good supply of deep bedded manure compost. I have been researching design plans for a moveable dry hay feeder to add to their facilities, and I hope we can get one in the works quickly and put it to use.

The rams go in with the sheep at the end of next week, and the buck goes in with the does at the same time. Those breeders will get a little tune-up before going to work, with a hoof trim, vaccine booster and worming. This will be the first breeding season for our rams, as well as the buck, so I am eager to see how they perform. One of the rams developed a little hoof problem this week, and while it was minor enough that we would have usually just let it resolve itself, we had a the vet in on Thursday to fix it up. We really want to make sure that the ram is fully mobile and on his A-game when breeding starts so that the window of breeding, and the resulting lambing window, can be as short as is possible. The vet found a ruptured abscess in one pad of the rams front right foot, so we flushed it with iodine and wrapped it, and gave him an antibiotic to ensure that the infection clears up.
We’ve plowed up a section of the old sheep pasture to add to the Flat Field system, and found some really good soil in there, and almost no rocks (except those two bigs ones). 

Trees starting coming down along this year’s firewood area this week as we worked to prepare for the big production push starting in a few weeks. We’ve found that having a hand-full of trees down and ready for bucking and splitting really helps to get the work going while individual students work one-on-one with Bradley and Tyson on the slower and more careful work of more tree felling. We’ll be cutting along the western edge of the Flat Field at Sentinel Elm Farm this year, opening that hedgerow up as much as we possibly can to permit the maximum amount of sunlight onto the veggie beds in the field. The Flat Field is undergoing a significant upgrade and development into a tightly managed permanent bed system with irrigation, all established and planted at a hand-tool scale. We are hoping to produce a consistent supply of the smaller more intensive crops in that space, do it under tighter control with more consistent results, and free up some of our other veggie acreage for fallowing and other management. This is a really exciting development of our land and program, and the first steps taken this fall have been an effort to have next year’s growing season go as smoothly as a first year can. I’ll let you know how it all goes down.

October 14th – October 21st

Tomatillos in the home garden

Cold temperatures, strong wind, and frosty mornings have made this week feel like a true step into fall for us here at the farm, and there is a new urgency around our work to prepare winter quarters for our livestock. Both chicken winter houses are getting cleaned and fixed up so that the layers can come in off pasture and move into their cozy winter homes, and we’re working on the beef winter barn too. We renovated the inside space, expanded the room the cows will have to lie down, fixed up the walls that surround the cow’s space, rehabbed the windows and restored the hay-loft upstairs. We are excited to see how the changes work out this winter, and also to get the beef herd included in our AWA certification. That certification demands a certain amount of square feet of indoor area per animal, so one motivation for our renovation was to get the barn up to that standard. Fall is also breeding season for our sheep and goats. We’ll do quite a bit of shuffling to get the rams and bucks where they need to be on November 1st, and to get the younger ewes and does that we don’t want to breed out of the way. The rams and bucks will get wormed, get their vaccine boosters and their hoofs trimmed before they go in with the girls. Our buck is so stinky by this point that I have ordered hazmat suits to put on before handling him.

We took our first round of pigs off to the slaughterhouse Wednesday, the loading chute worked really well and the whole operation came off very smoothly. These are some of the best looking pigs that we have ever raised here at The Farm School, probably because we had so much milk for them as we renovated our dairy facility, and I am really excited to

The dairy herd headed in for a drink. 

see how the cuts come back in a few weeks. We’ll hold onto the last, smallest pig of the bunch, keep it for a couple of weeks down in the farmyard, and have it ready for the student farmer’s butchering class in December. That class will give us a hands on look at the quality of the animal, as well as an opportunity to hear from the professional butcher teaching the class about how it looks. The butchering class is always a very direct verdict on the how our pig enterprise went for the year, and I relish the chance to see the product and to hear about its quality.

The cold weather has also put a charge into this final push in the veggie fields, cultivating and seeding with cover crop seed as Tyson and Brad race to get as much acreage prepped for a good winter as is possible. The student farmers have been going through their one-on-one in-depth tractor training this week as well, so the tractor and its operators, have been pretty busy. By this point in the fall we are spreading winter rye seed as our cover crop, and it can germinate at temperatures as low as thirty-four degrees, and will grow as cold as thirty-eight

The greenhouse is just about empty.

degrees. This gives us a bit more time to get that seed in the soil, and hopefully to have it grow a bit before things really shut down for the winter. The rye in the field will help hold the soil in place through the winter and spring, and will provide a little ‘green manure’ when it is cultivated into the soil in the spring.


October 7th – October 15th

This rainy weather has meant a bumper crop of wild mushrooms. This is a huge puffball in the Flat Field.

We just cannot get a break from the rain here in central MA, and with more than an inch falling here this week, conditions have remained saturated and soggy. Brad and Tyson were able to sneak out into some veggie fields during the first half of the week to cultivate and spread cover crop seeds, but it started raining Tuesday evening and has not really stopped since then. The dairy cow road, the sheep road, around the water trough in the beef cow’s daily paddocks, and everywhere that we drive out on the fields is a soft muddy mess, and I continue to worry about the condition of our hoofed animals feet. They all need to have the opportunity for their feet to dry out periodically to avoid ‘foot rot’, and those chances to get out of the wet seem to be few and far between these days. We are trying to use straw strategically to give them dry loafing areas, but in really wet conditions, straw just ends up saturated and holding more water. We are seeing more and more clearly the work that needs to be done to prepare the land that we farm to accommodate the farming that we want to do. Our roads, our animal housing and our veggie systems all need some updating and improving if this weather is going to recur in seasons to come. We cannot predict if super wet summers will be the new pattern for us here, so I think that we will need to think long and hard about how to adapt our endeavors and methods to be resilient in the face of a wide variety of weather challenges. The issue that I expect we’ll be facing is not really any specific type of weather becoming more prevalent, but rather an intensification of the weather generally, with hotter hots, wetter wets, and drier dries. This means improving our infrastructure in terms of flooding, but also thinking about ways to keep our animals and vegetables comfortable and well fed and watered in hotter and drier weather too.

There was frost on the tallest grass in Middle Earth Pasture when I was out moving the

The pumpkins have been harvested, but some stragglers remain.

egg-mobiles before sunrise Saturday morning, and with the temperature forecasted to fall down near freezing again on several nights this week, it looks like we might really be coming to the official end of the growing season. There are cold hardy veggie crops like kale still out in the fields, and they can handle the cold, but most plants stop growing or are killed completely with a couple of frosts. We have some really nice grass out in the pastures which will also stop growing for the season with a few frosty nights, and now we just need to be vigilant that our grazing is gentle enough that we don’t do too much damage to the dormant pastures. We want to the pastures to rest through the winter with a nice cover of grass, so close grazing will put the plants and pastures at risk if we take that cover down too short. A nice healthy grass plant with a large root system under the soil is ready to get things going again in the spring, and has the resources available to begin growing early and strong, but a plant that the cows or sheep thrash in the fall won’t have much energy to get going when temperatures climb in March and April.

The Kale and Chard enjoying some rare sun in the Flat Field. 

Frost on the pastures turns my mind to the winter work to come, to the projects that need to get done now before the ground freezes, and to the systems that need to be setup before there is ice in the hoses and water dishes. We have a stack of logs in the yard at Maggie’s Farm ready for bucking, splitting and stacking. Student Farmers will take the Game of Logging class in a couple of weeks, get their introduction to chainsaw use, care and safety, and the months long cord-wood project will start rolling along. The winter layer house still has the bedding from last spring in it, so it will need a full clean-out and refresh before the new layers can move in. We need to initiate round bale deliveries at the Waslaske barn and at the dairy, stocking up on winter feed for the beef and dairy herds. Six beef cows load out to the slaughterhouse next Sunday, so I’ll need to get the chute in order, review the herd records to select the steers and cows that are ready for culling, and mark them with paint so we can pick them out next weekend without too much trouble. Our first batch of pigs goes off for processing Wednesday, and I’ll work with our Student Farmers to finish up the loading setup and get the trailer in place. Finally, though I’m sure there are a lot of things I’m forgetting, November first is the date we put the rams in with the sheep flock, so we need to figure out the rotation of rams, bucks, ewe lambs we don’t want bred, and goat does so that everyone has a nice place to live, nobody is in with the boys that shouldn’t be, and everyone is safe. I’ll let you know what we figure out.

October 1st – October 7th

Out turkeys are growing.

The new class of student farmers arrived on the farm Thursday evening, and they’ve been traipsing all over the ridge over the past few days, seeing the fields and forests, meeting our neighbors, and getting to know each other a little. On Friday morning we circled up to give everyone a chance to share a little bit about how they ended up here at The Farm School, and every student shared some incredibly compelling story that has brought them here. It is inspiring to hear why folks have made the decision to spend the next year here doing the work of the farm with us, it validates the work that we put into the program and our belief in the significance of our mission. It is also wonderful to have Maggie’s Farm re-invigorated, lights on in the farm house and folks out and about bringing the place to life again. Soon they’ll be moving through this landscape, doing chores and harvest, building and repairing, and keeping this whole big thing spinning for another year.

Next week will be the first full week of the 2018/19 Learn to Farm program, and it will be

The leaves have started turning at the farm. 

a busy stretch full of time spent getting students up to speed on harvest and livestock chores so that they can go right to work keeping the farm humming along. We’ll do chore, truck and harvest training on Monday and Wednesday, in depth livestock observation and a walk through the forest on Tuesday, a full day of tractor safety on Thursday, and food preservation and carpentry on Friday. Its quite a list of topics and skills, and while we try to stay vigilant in not overloading our new students, we are eager to get them the knowledge and skills they’ll need to get right to work on the farm. The fall is a training and class heavy time when we introduce some of the fundamental concepts that will guide the whole year. This is also the period when the tenor of the group can be set, and strong bonds that will carry the class through the long hard seasons can be formed.

The work of the farm continued this week, though the wet weather also continued, keeping us out of the fields and pastures with tractors and trucks for fear of damaging the soft ground. We have been unable to cultivate finished veggie beds to prepare them for cover crop seed, and I have not been able to drive into the pasture to hook up and move the egg mobiles. We did have one really nice sunny day on Friday, which felt wonderful after days and days of grey and damp, but Saturday and Sunday have taken us back into the mist and humidity, so I don’t think were drying out at all.
Pigs start loading up for the trip to the slaughterhouse next Wednesday, so we’ll spend this coming week getting their

Winter spinach is coming up in the hoop house. 

chute setup and ready. We’ll take ten pigs in every Wednesday until they’re all gone, so we need to have a good setup that makes loading as smooth as is possible. The pigs start the fall processing sequence, and we’ll be taking livestock over to the slaughter house pretty regularly through the fall. Thirty pigs, twenty sheep, six cows, maybe a couple of goats, and the whole flock of fifty turkeys will exit the stage here in the coming couple of months, emptying our farm quite a bit for the winter season.

September 23rd – September 30th

One of our rams, and the buck, out on pasture. 

The rain kept up this week, the pastures stayed soft and muddy, farm roads were a mess, and I think that frogs were the only animals around happy with the weather. We’ve had the beef herd grazing rotation stopped for about two weeks, trying to let soaked pastures dry out and firm up so the herd doesn’t churn up the soil too much as they graze. After going through ten round bales of hay, it felt like the time had come to get back into grazing, so despite the rain, the cows started moving again Thursday afternoon. They were really excited to get some fresh grass, but the pastures that they are moving through now certainly did not dry out nearly as much as I had hoped they would before the cows went on them.

We have been having real trouble getting Penguin bred this summer and fall, and after

Penguin has mixed in nicely with the beef herd. 

five attempts and an exam from the vet, we have moved her down the road to join the beef herd and their bull. The Jersey cows can gain weight really quickly if they are not growing a calf or making milk, and Penguin, at two years old and open, has been showing signs of weight gain over the past few months. We discovered that her reproductive anatomy was already pretty small when Brad tried to breed her, so our concern was that the addition of internal body fat would only make breeding her get more and more difficult. The vet came out to examine Penguin and her mother Patty, who has also been having a little trouble breeding, and recommended getting Penguin bred as soon as possible. He said that everything seemed to be in place and proper, but that weight gain was going to become an issue very soon. She had been in a good standing heat the day before the vet’s visit, and he said she could even be bred right then and there. We hustled her into the livestock trailer, somehow got the truck and trailer through the submerged fields roads out to the beef herd, and inside the fence. The bull was immediately interested in Penguin, and I am hoping that he got her bred that afternoon or evening. We’ll leave her in with the beef herd for about a month more, giving her at least one more cycle for breeding in case the connection was not made this week. I was worried about the potential for Penguin, bred by the beef bull, to grow a baby too big to birth next spring, but the vet is confident that the match should work out. We have been letting our heifers grow to two years old before their first breeding, but the vet has advised us to advance our first breeding to fifteen or sixteen months or age to help avoid the weight issues we’ve been having. The next challenge will be to get Penguin out of the beef herd and back into the dairy in a month’s time.

Penguin’s mother Patty, the star of our milking and breeding programs, had a calf in May, but has not been cycling at all since then. Obviously a cow that doesn’t come into heat cannot be bred, so we have been watching Patty carefully and waiting for a heat cycle. The vet came out to check her this week, and, using a small ultrasound probe, was able to detect a cyst on one of her ovaries. This cyst, something quite common in older dairy cows, has been secreting hormones and confusing the function of her reproductive system, and was keeping her from cycling properly. We administered a hormone injection while the vet was cow-side that will begin a heat cycle, we’ll give her another type of treatment in ten days to bring the cycle to fruition and cause Patty to shed the cyst, and then hopefully she will able to begin her own regular cycling and we can breed her for a late summer calf next year. Patty has delivered and raised the vast majority of the cows in our herd, she makes by far the most milk of any of our cows, she has the gentlest manner at milking, and will let any hungry calf nurse from her. She also has the smaller size and expansive rumen that we want in our pastured herd, so we are eager to keep her healthy and productive here for as long as is possible. Her daughters in our barn include Pearl, Pip, Penguin and Pepper, and little Purple Rain and Pumpkin from this year are her grand daughters.
The leaves on the hilltops have taken on the first tints of brown, red and yellow, and our thermometers here on the farm were down in the forties last night. Veggie harvest is still going strong, but I think the end is drawing into sight. The pumpkins have been harvested and sent into Cambridge to be converted into beer, more and more veggie acreage is going under cover crop, and my thoughts have turned to preparing winter quarters for our livestock. The beef herd’s winter barn got a huge make-over this summer, and I am eager to get it setup and ready, and to see if our changes work the way we hope. The laying hen’s winter house needs a full clean out, but our two rams and the stinky buck have spent the summer in the chicken’s winter yard keeping it neatly trimmed. The pigs will be gone by winter, though we did buy in two piglets this week to raise up over the winter. They’ll need a nice deep nest of straw to root and burrow into to stay warm this winter, and we’re hoping to get them a bit bigger and fatter before the cold weather really sets in. They’ll get a steady diet of extra milk from the dairy, and should do quite well.

September 16th – September 23rd

The sheep are enjoying some good fall grass. 

With the Learn to Farm graduation last weekend and the departure of the wonderful student farmers, Maggie’s Farm was certainly a different place this week. The bunkhouse wing of the farm house has gone quiet, there are no delicious baking projects to sample on a pass through the kitchen, and all of those smiling faces we have grown to love are missing. Although the students are gone, harvest and chores continued, and we started sprucing the campus up in preparation for the new class coming in a couple of weeks. The kitchen is getting its annual make-over, with an inventory of equipment and a refinishing of the floor, the parlor is getting rehabbed as well, and all the bunk-rooms will be repainted. We have also started our annual round of program and planning meetings, digging through the whole Learn to Farm Program to scrutinize each part, to make sure that the purpose and effectiveness is clear for each component of the program, and to find ways to improve what were doing across the board. There are parts of the program that we seem to wrestle with each year as we continue to seek a structure that works for everyone, and this fall we’ll be working on the independent project section of the program, our assigned reading curriculum, and our advisor work. Each of these are significant aspects of the Learn to Farm year, but we still have work to do the refine them into their most positive and effective forms.

We had the beef herd grazing rotation stopped all of this week with standing water and

This week’s rain

mud is many of our pastures. I had hoped that a week of drying would make these pastures a bit firmer and more ready to graze, but with three and a half inches of rain on Monday and Tuesday, things only got wetter rather than drying out. We’ll keep the beef herd stopped through at least the middle of next week, eating wrapped round bales in Circle Pasture, and hope that we can get some good drying weather for the next few days. The grass in the better drained pastures is growing really nicely, so I am really looking forward to getting the herd back out for some good fall grazing. Fall’s chillier weather is usually really good for our cool season grasses, and October can be one of our better grazing months as we fatten up those steers for November slaughter. The weather patterns around here were pretty scrambled this summer though, and I am trying not to count on anything playing out the way that it usually does.

Indigo is getting to know her new herd. 

We purchased a six month old Normande heifer calf this week, hoping to add a new genetic line and a bit of diversity to our little dairy herd. Indigo came from Chase Hill Farm just down the road, and we are really looking forward to seeing her grow up to be a big part of our dairy in the future. Chase Hill has Indigo’s grandmother and mother in their milking lineup, and we are always happy to gave cows that come from good stock like that in our barn. She is old enough to be weaned at this point, and we have just put her in with the herd to find her own way. She may find a mother cow who is willing to let her nurse, or she may just give up nursing, but we’ll keep a close eye on her and support her nutrition if needed.

September 9th – September 16th

Harvest’s bounty

The Learn to Farm class of 2018 graduated on Saturday, marking the end of a remarkable year of work, learning and community building. This class was a powerful and productive whole, but was also made up of spectacular individuals. Each and every student poured their hearts, plenty of sweat and maybe even a little blood into the work of this farm, and our community is full of thanks and amazement for their time here. The farm is a better place for their contributions, the work of The Farm School has been carried forward for another year, and our community is a better place with them in it.

Saturday’s graduation program included a section that the students called ‘telling the

We’re converting the hoop house from tomato production to winter greens and carrots. 

seasons’ in which they recounted the year on the farm that they are now completing, while acting out many of the most significant parts of each season. This review of the year was an amazing snapshot of the length of their commitment to our farm, to the breadth of work that they have completed, and to the variety of tasks in which we have immersed ourselves through this year on the farm. It was striking to be reminded of the places in the year where certain pieces of work take on seemingly mythological proportions, the focus of nearly our whole organization is brought to bear on one area or project, and it feels like the whole world exists in that work. I am thinking mostly of the cord wood production period of the program in the winter, and the veggie production period running through spring, summer and early fall. The immensity of these projects, the repetitive nature of the work, and the exhaustion that came with each day cast these endeavors indelibly in the memories of our students, and they figured prominently in their reenactment of the seasons. Fell, buck, split, stack, fell, buck split, stack was the cadence of the winter, repeated at graduation to recall the work of cordwood.

Summer’s end on the farm 

We got another inch of rain this week, and although we have had a nice period of drier weather since the deluge of July and August, this last rain seems to have had nowhere to soak into. Several of our beef pastures are again under standing water, and we have had to adapt the beef grazing rotation to keep the cows off  some of the swampier fields. We have parked the cows in the Circle Pasture, and I have setup five round bales in there to feed out over the coming week. I hope that a week’s time will let the pastures dry a bit and allow us to graze them the following week, but we do have another inch of rain forecasted for Tuesday. We are creeping up on the end of our grazing season, which usually runs through the end of October, so I am beginning to consider the condition that we leave pastures after grazing since we may not have the cows back over the same ground again this year. The grass above ground is a good indicator of the root system below, and our goal is to leave strong roots to ride out the winter with enough vigor for spring, so we try to leave as much residue on the soil surface as we can. Some of our pastures are growing extremely well with all of the rain we had this summer, but some of the lower and flatter areas seem to have just gotten too soaked, and to have stopped growing.

The pigs are growing well up on the hill at Sentinel Elm Farm, and turkeys have begun to

The turkeys are growing for Thanksgiving! 

really put on weight now too. Our lambs are starting to approach a good market weight with five or six more weeks of grazing ahead of them before heading off to slaughter, and this year’s steers look incredible in the beef herd. These weeks are the last breath of the flush of summer, and the gentle slope down into fall is just becoming visible over the horizon. The hornets in the orchards are nearly panicked, sensing their own imminent demise, and we too are working hard to squeeze everything we can from the season before it ends.

September 2nd – September 9th

The pigs moved to a new paddock Friday. 

This was the opening week of the fall session at the Program for Visiting Schools at Sentinel Elm Farm, and we hosted a large and wonderful group of seventh and eighth graders from The Charles River School for three days of work on the farm. We endured another stretch of astonishingly hot weather while the kids were on the farm, but they held up great and got a lot done. The thermometer went up over ninety-five degrees Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday afternoons, and with high humidity it was difficult to work outside for any stretch of time. We had undertaken so many big projects in August that the farm still needed a little polishing to get into tip-top shape, and the visiting students helped get it all done, while taking regular water breaks. The kitchen was a really busy, and hot, place through the week, and we ate some amazing meals, as usual. Despite the heat, we are moving towards the end of the growing season, so work around the farm has begun to turn toward cold season preparations. The hoop-house tomatoes came out of the ground this week, and beds were prepped for our usual spinach and carrot planting. Students worked to clean and rehab the winter chicken coop in anticipation of moving the laying flock in there when the weather turns really cold.

We finished a bar-way in the northwest corner of our sheep pasture this week, giving us

The beef herd on a hazy day. 

the opportunity to get into that field with the manure spreader, and to get the sheep out of there and across the street into a neighbor’s field. I have been dreaming about making this bar-way for years, and I am really excited to put it to use. Unfortunately the new sheep field has grown tall and weedy this year without regular mowing, so I am not sure we’ll get the sheep in there this fall. We’ll get it mowed as soon as possible, and see if there is time for anything to grown up through the mowed mulch for some late fall grazing. If there isn’t enough time for regrowth, we’ll just have to wait until next year and try to keep ahead of the mowing to keep the grass green. We will definitely get the manure spreader onto the sheep field this fall, using the new bar-way, and spread manure for the first time on a field that really needs it. That pasture has barely been keeping up with the sheep, and I am really excited to increase fertility in there with a healthy dose of composted manure from the dairy.

The new bull, and the rest of the herd. 

The bull went in with the beef herd on Monday, a couple weeks later than we usually like, but still on time for calves to arrive in the middle of the next grazing season. We rent a bull every year from the original Rotokawa Devon herd imported from New Zealand years ago, usually hosting a different bull every time. This year’s bull is a very handsome youngster, just the right size and shape for us, and I am really looking forward to seeing his calves next summer. We always want a reasonably sized bull, hoping for easy birthing calves, and we aim for getting shorter and stockier as we develop a herd best suited to thriving on a 100% grass diet.