September 16th – September 23rd

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The sheep are enjoying some good fall grass. 

With the Learn to Farm graduation last weekend and the departure of the wonderful student farmers, Maggie’s Farm was certainly a different place this week. The bunkhouse wing of the farm house has gone quiet, there are no delicious baking projects to sample on a pass through the kitchen, and all of those smiling faces we have grown to love are missing. Although the students are gone, harvest and chores continued, and we started sprucing the campus up in preparation for the new class coming in a couple of weeks. The kitchen is getting its annual make-over, with an inventory of equipment and a refinishing of the floor, the parlor is getting rehabbed as well, and all the bunk-rooms will be repainted. We have also started our annual round of program and planning meetings, digging through the whole Learn to Farm Program to scrutinize each part, to make sure that the purpose and effectiveness is clear for each component of the program, and to find ways to improve what were doing across the board. There are parts of the program that we seem to wrestle with each year as we continue to seek a structure that works for everyone, and this fall we’ll be working on the independent project section of the program, our assigned reading curriculum, and our advisor work. Each of these are significant aspects of the Learn to Farm year, but we still have work to do the refine them into their most positive and effective forms.

We had the beef herd grazing rotation stopped all of this week with standing water and

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This week’s rain

mud is many of our pastures. I had hoped that a week of drying would make these pastures a bit firmer and more ready to graze, but with three and a half inches of rain on Monday and Tuesday, things only got wetter rather than drying out. We’ll keep the beef herd stopped through at least the middle of next week, eating wrapped round bales in Circle Pasture, and hope that we can get some good drying weather for the next few days. The grass in the better drained pastures is growing really nicely, so I am really looking forward to getting the herd back out for some good fall grazing. Fall’s chillier weather is usually really good for our cool season grasses, and October can be one of our better grazing months as we fatten up those steers for November slaughter. The weather patterns around here were pretty scrambled this summer though, and I am trying not to count on anything playing out the way that it usually does.

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Indigo is getting to know her new herd. 

We purchased a six month old Normande heifer calf this week, hoping to add a new genetic line and a bit of diversity to our little dairy herd. Indigo came from Chase Hill Farm just down the road, and we are really looking forward to seeing her grow up to be a big part of our dairy in the future. Chase Hill has Indigo’s grandmother and mother in their milking lineup, and we are always happy to gave cows that come from good stock like that in our barn. She is old enough to be weaned at this point, and we have just put her in with the herd to find her own way. She may find a mother cow who is willing to let her nurse, or she may just give up nursing, but we’ll keep a close eye on her and support her nutrition if needed.

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September 9th – September 16th

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Harvest’s bounty

The Learn to Farm class of 2018 graduated on Saturday, marking the end of a remarkable year of work, learning and community building. This class was a powerful and productive whole, but was also made up of spectacular individuals. Each and every student poured their hearts, plenty of sweat and maybe even a little blood into the work of this farm, and our community is full of thanks and amazement for their time here. The farm is a better place for their contributions, the work of The Farm School has been carried forward for another year, and our community is a better place with them in it.

Saturday’s graduation program included a section that the students called ‘telling the

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We’re converting the hoop house from tomato production to winter greens and carrots. 

seasons’ in which they recounted the year on the farm that they are now completing, while acting out many of the most significant parts of each season. This review of the year was an amazing snapshot of the length of their commitment to our farm, to the breadth of work that they have completed, and to the variety of tasks in which we have immersed ourselves through this year on the farm. It was striking to be reminded of the places in the year where certain pieces of work take on seemingly mythological proportions, the focus of nearly our whole organization is brought to bear on one area or project, and it feels like the whole world exists in that work. I am thinking mostly of the cord wood production period of the program in the winter, and the veggie production period running through spring, summer and early fall. The immensity of these projects, the repetitive nature of the work, and the exhaustion that came with each day cast these endeavors indelibly in the memories of our students, and they figured prominently in their reenactment of the seasons. Fell, buck, split, stack, fell, buck split, stack was the cadence of the winter, repeated at graduation to recall the work of cordwood.

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Summer’s end on the farm 

We got another inch of rain this week, and although we have had a nice period of drier weather since the deluge of July and August, this last rain seems to have had nowhere to soak into. Several of our beef pastures are again under standing water, and we have had to adapt the beef grazing rotation to keep the cows off  some of the swampier fields. We have parked the cows in the Circle Pasture, and I have setup five round bales in there to feed out over the coming week. I hope that a week’s time will let the pastures dry a bit and allow us to graze them the following week, but we do have another inch of rain forecasted for Tuesday. We are creeping up on the end of our grazing season, which usually runs through the end of October, so I am beginning to consider the condition that we leave pastures after grazing since we may not have the cows back over the same ground again this year. The grass above ground is a good indicator of the root system below, and our goal is to leave strong roots to ride out the winter with enough vigor for spring, so we try to leave as much residue on the soil surface as we can. Some of our pastures are growing extremely well with all of the rain we had this summer, but some of the lower and flatter areas seem to have just gotten too soaked, and to have stopped growing.

The pigs are growing well up on the hill at Sentinel Elm Farm, and turkeys have begun to

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The turkeys are growing for Thanksgiving! 

really put on weight now too. Our lambs are starting to approach a good market weight with five or six more weeks of grazing ahead of them before heading off to slaughter, and this year’s steers look incredible in the beef herd. These weeks are the last breath of the flush of summer, and the gentle slope down into fall is just becoming visible over the horizon. The hornets in the orchards are nearly panicked, sensing their own imminent demise, and we too are working hard to squeeze everything we can from the season before it ends.

September 2nd – September 9th

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The pigs moved to a new paddock Friday. 

This was the opening week of the fall session at the Program for Visiting Schools at Sentinel Elm Farm, and we hosted a large and wonderful group of seventh and eighth graders from The Charles River School for three days of work on the farm. We endured another stretch of astonishingly hot weather while the kids were on the farm, but they held up great and got a lot done. The thermometer went up over ninety-five degrees Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday afternoons, and with high humidity it was difficult to work outside for any stretch of time. We had undertaken so many big projects in August that the farm still needed a little polishing to get into tip-top shape, and the visiting students helped get it all done, while taking regular water breaks. The kitchen was a really busy, and hot, place through the week, and we ate some amazing meals, as usual. Despite the heat, we are moving towards the end of the growing season, so work around the farm has begun to turn toward cold season preparations. The hoop-house tomatoes came out of the ground this week, and beds were prepped for our usual spinach and carrot planting. Students worked to clean and rehab the winter chicken coop in anticipation of moving the laying flock in there when the weather turns really cold.

We finished a bar-way in the northwest corner of our sheep pasture this week, giving us

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The beef herd on a hazy day. 

the opportunity to get into that field with the manure spreader, and to get the sheep out of there and across the street into a neighbor’s field. I have been dreaming about making this bar-way for years, and I am really excited to put it to use. Unfortunately the new sheep field has grown tall and weedy this year without regular mowing, so I am not sure we’ll get the sheep in there this fall. We’ll get it mowed as soon as possible, and see if there is time for anything to grown up through the mowed mulch for some late fall grazing. If there isn’t enough time for regrowth, we’ll just have to wait until next year and try to keep ahead of the mowing to keep the grass green. We will definitely get the manure spreader onto the sheep field this fall, using the new bar-way, and spread manure for the first time on a field that really needs it. That pasture has barely been keeping up with the sheep, and I am really excited to increase fertility in there with a healthy dose of composted manure from the dairy.

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The new bull, and the rest of the herd. 

The bull went in with the beef herd on Monday, a couple weeks later than we usually like, but still on time for calves to arrive in the middle of the next grazing season. We rent a bull every year from the original Rotokawa Devon herd imported from New Zealand years ago, usually hosting a different bull every time. This year’s bull is a very handsome youngster, just the right size and shape for us, and I am really looking forward to seeing his calves next summer. We always want a reasonably sized bull, hoping for easy birthing calves, and we aim for getting shorter and stockier as we develop a herd best suited to thriving on a 100% grass diet.

August 25th – September 2nd

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Pearl giving Pumpkin her morning bath. 

There are so many forces at play on the farm that it must be just about impossible to say for certain that one thing caused another, or to really know for sure why something happened, or the season has unfolded the way that it has. Despite that, there are patterns to be seen all around us here, and I think that we are sometimes lucky enough to trip over the threads that tie them together. This year our farm has grown incredible clover, both red and white, thick, lush and abundant like I have never seen before, and sweet enough that even my jaded human tongue can taste the sugar. This year we have grown perfect melons, beautiful to the eye, bursting with flavor and sugar, bright, with the ideal consistency. This year we grew the most perfect cucumbers, firm, juicy and full of flavor, and so many of them that we could barely keep up with their ripening. This year we have grown not a single apple. This spring we had more ticks than any of us could remember, pulling dozens off of ourselves and the farm dogs every day, and now, at the start of September, I have not seen a tick in at least six weeks. This year the

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The other pumpkins, still growing. 

cauliflower and broccoli were just about drowned by all the rain, the tomatoes in the field were squashed and rotted by the same, and the hoop-house tomatoes ended up saving the day, thriving under their shelter.

The melons and cucumbers are both Cucurbits, so I can see a connection there to explain why both would thrive in the same growing season, under the same conditions. Both produce large fruit full of water, so it may be that the inundation that we experienced here from the beginning of July through most of August just gave these crops enough water to really reach their full potential, and the extreme heat cooked them to just the right sweetness. I’m sure that there are quite a few reasons that could be floated out to explain this year’s character, in its minutia and in its whole shape, but it feels to me, trying to keep up with the work, that it just passes by so fast that all I can do is notice these patterns as they go wheeling by, and let them go. Then

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There are some peaches out there, and they are looking good. 

the years stack up, this one on top of the last one, and the things we’ve seen and learned, the things that seemed so vital and important, start to slip away. Every year I try to commit myself to keeping a farm journal, a place to record the weather, the events, the mistakes and successes, all of these lessons. Every year my initiative comes up short of my intentions, but every year we try to teach our student farmers that the most important thing to learn at The Farm School is to be an observant farmer. There are thousands and thousands of right and wrong ways to do every task on the farm, so we cannot teach anyone ‘the right way’ to do anything, but we can, and try, to teach everyone how to observe.

From “Prayers and Sayings of the Mad Farmer” by Wendell Berry

XIII

Don’t worry and fret about the crops. After you have done all you 
can for them, let them stand in the weather on their own.

If the crop of any one year was all, a man would have to cut his 
throat every time it hailed.

But the real products of any year’s work are the farmer’s mind
and the cropland itself.

If he raises a good crop at the cost of belittling himself and
diminishing the ground, he has gained nothing. He will have to
begin over again the next spring, worse off than before.

Let him receive the season’s increment into his mind. Let him 
work it into the soil.

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The grapes are almost ripe. 

August 20th – August 25th

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Onions curing in the greenhouse

Another inch of rain fell on the farm this week, adding some icing to an already fully saturated cake, but in comparison to the rain totals we’ve had since the beginning of July, an inch for the week was actually a bit of a relief. Other than that one rainy day, we’ve had some nice sunny weather, and things are finally beginning to dry out a tiny bit. While much of the ground under-foot, the roads, lawns, veggie beds and pastures seem to be drying, the immense volume of rain that has fallen in the past two months means that there is still an enormous amount of water moving through the soaked soil and heading down hill. Many of our pastures, especially at the dairy farm, slope up away from the main farm complex, and there is still water seeping out of the base of those pastures into the farm. The abundance of standing water on the farm has also lead to an explosion in our resident mosquito population, and venturing into the shady forests, or outside at dusk, has become remarkably challenging. The soaked soil should lead to strong pasture growth, and we certainly have been mowing the lawns a lot trying to keep up with the grass, so I am hopeful that we will have a great fall of grazing. The rainy weather slowed the grass for a while, but it really seems to be getting up to speed again now.

August has been incredibly busy here at the farm because we made an effort to schedule several large infrastructure projects while the Program for Visiting Schools was out of session. We pressure washed and painted the bunkhouse, re-roofed the bunkhouse, put in a new farm road branching off the main driveway and going around the lower (east) side of the dairy barn, drilled a new irrigation well in the Flat Field, added a new bar-way at the road-side end of the Upper veggie fields, and made more progress on the new dairy facility. The new road, bar-way and well are all connected to an effort to develop the Flat Field at Sentinel Elm Farm into a more intensively cultivated bit of acreage. We hope that we can enhance our veggie operations and teaching facilities by making the Flat Field, and its great soil, the highly managed, smaller scale heart of our veggie production. We will keep the larger scale field vegetables going strong, and keep the Maggie’s home garden, but the Flat Field will offer us another relevant model to share with our students. We also recognized that this change would mean more truck traffic to and from the Flat Field, so the new road and the new bar-way are efforts to give folks headed to veggie acreage at Sentinel Elm Farm ways to avoid driving through the middle of campus.

Monday marks the start of what we call the Capstone part of our Learn to Farm year. Friday was the early graduation celebration, an earlier date where some students have the opportunity to head out to start new jobs or to go back to school. This leaves about half of the initial class to finish out three more weeks of farming, and gives them the chance to take on more responsibility in the management of the farm. The class divides itself into either Vegetable or Farm tracks, and the students will spend their final weeks working exclusively in those areas. Students in the Vegetable track will manage the whole of our veggie operation, weeding, harvesting, packing, marketing, and all the rest, while those in the Farm track will manage the livestock and do a large renovation on our beef winter barn. We are hoping to expand the bedded area for the beef cows to use in bad weather, build a new and improved feeder, and re-install windows all around the barn to keep a bit more of the weather out. We have cleaned and gutted quite a bit of the beef winter barn this summer in preparation for this project, and we discovered that there is more work to do in there than we can complete in this three week Capstone period. I expect that renovation and repair work will continue in the beef barn through most of the fall, with the goal of having everything ready for the cows to move in at the end of October or beginning of November. We had dreams of renovating the outside systems as well this fall, but it is beginning to look like that will have to wait until next year.

August 13th – August 20th

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The draft horses and cows are in the same pasture. 

I hope that we are coming to the end of an extended period of remarkable weather here at The Farm School, and the experience has got me thinking a lot about adapting our farm to changing weather patterns and extremes. We’ve had over fifteen inches of rain since the second week of July, and I think the thermometer stayed over seventy degrees for just about that whole stretch. The humidity has been constant and quite high, giving the farm a rain forest feeling. This part of the country usually sees somewhere between three and four inches of rain per month, so this has been a departure from what we expect and what we are prepared for.

Though this wet weather has swamped a good portion of our vegetable acreage, softened fields up to the point where we could not go on them with the tractors, and saturated several types of crops, my focus has been on the effect on our livestock. For them, the rain has meant never having a dry place to lie down, constantly wet hoofs, an explosion in the population of pasture parasites in their environment, wet feed, mud all around them and on their legs and bellies, and water in the pastures and the roads that they use to move around the farm. Some of these issues are more nuisance that problem, and many will resolves themselves once the rain stops, the sun comes out, and the water soaks into the soil. Other issues have had a much more significant impact, with a real effect on the health and performance of our livestock.

We lost our third sheep in a month Tuesday of last week, and decided that it was time to get the veterinarian out for a postmortem in the hopes of determining the trouble. Losing a single sheep is pretty normal, losing a second might just be a coincidence, but losing the third shows us that we probably have a real problem on our hands. We did the postmortem on Tuesday afternoon, and although there was nothing visibly wrong with the ewe, she was thinner than we’d like. The vet took a fecal sample from the ewe, and another sample collected from various areas in the sheep yard, and tested them for parasite load back at his office. The test revealed a very high level of parasite eggs in the general yard sample, and an even higher level from the sample taken from the dead ewe. We had wormed the sheep Tuesday morning in anticipation of the high parasite finding, and we plan to worm them again next week with a different medication. The warm wet weather has created and maintained a perfect environment for the parasites resident in our pastures, with grass that never dries and warm temperatures allowing the tiny worms to remain on the grass stems indefinitely. These parasites are water dependent, moving up and down the leaves of pasture grasses as dew develops over night and dries in the sun. The sheep pick them up as they brush their noses through the grass, and constantly wet grass means that they are constantly picking up parasites.

The question we now face is how to adapt our systems, infrastructure and practices to

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We are developing a new road to the Flat Field. 

keep our livestock comfortable and healthy in the face of a changing weather landscape. Specific ideas on my mind include having a place for every animal to get out of the wet, to have a place for everyone to lie down in a dry spot, improving our farm roads so they drain and remain passable despite the rain, developing and installing nice sheep corral system so that we can catch and worm our sheep more quickly and easily, and will therefore do it more frequently. I’d also like to see us develop a high-ground area that we could move our cows to in extremely wet conditions to get them off of the pastures to a comfortable place with feed and water access. There are many other ways that we could enhance our farm landscape to be resilient in extreme weather, and I’m sure that we’ll be looking at all of them in the coming months and years.

August 4th – August 13th

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Some soil has been on the move. 

We’ve reached the end of another really rainy week here at the farm, and with something over fifteen inches of rain falling over the past month, conditions are really starting to get messy. We had over three inches of rain on Saturday night alone, adding to the incredible rain totals that we’ve had over the past month. I have never experienced rain like we’ve had over the past couple of weeks, so this is all new ground to cover for me. There is standing water in most of our pastures, and the big cows are starting to do some damage with their feet as they break through the sod. Anywhere that they have congregated, around the water trough, in the shade, or where they’ve collected any time that the sun has been out, has been ground up into a pretty muddy mess. While this is

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More field flooding

not something that we want to have happening out on the farm, it has given us the opportunity to spread grass and clover seed in these muddy areas. I am hopeful that these churned up wet spots will grow some beautiful new forage for our cows, and that we will have turned these challenging weather conditions into an opportunity to upgrade our pastures.

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These tomatoes are not very happy. 

All this rain has also put a serious hurt on our field tomatoes, and they are really starting to droop and discolor under all of this moisture. They are absolutely full of fruit, but they do not thrive when they’re regularly wet, and I’m not sure that they’ll be able to get much more fruit to ripeness. Luckily the hoop-house tomatoes are still going strong, and we’re hoping they’ll keep chugging along well into the fall. We have had enough rain falling fast enough that some soil has moved in a few veggie beds, swamping some of our smaller crops like lettuce and radishes. The wet conditions have also made getting out into the fields with tractors a real challenge, so we’ve had to put in extra time on hand work to keep up with the weeds and bed prep. Our farm roads are also getting really muddy by this point, and we’ve had some trouble getting the water wagon to the cows on the routes we usually take. After getting a few trucks stuck on the muddy roads last week, we have a tractor in the field for moving the beef cow water cube, and I am hopeful that that machine will be able to keep its head above water and to get the job done.

All of this rain is certainly making the pastures grow well, but we are now in a situation

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The dairy herd grazing on the high ground. 

where the pastures are a little too lush and rich for the cows and sheep. This can lead most directly to super loose manure, but can also make a little trouble on a more cellular level as well. The lush pasture is super high in protein and non-protein nitrogen, and low in fiber and energy. This imbalance can lead a ruminant animal to generate excess ammonia in their gut as they work extra hard trying to convert protein and amino acids into energy. The liver and kidneys have to go into overdrive as they work to filter the toxic levels of ammonia out of the animal’s blood, drawing more energy for their operation. These high levels of ammonia can also begin to push aside oxygen in the blood, depriving the animal of this critically important blood ingredient. All of this trouble leads to lowered milk production, slower growth, and if unaddressed, serious health problems. The typical fix for this is to make sure that cows are eating a healthy

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White faced hornets in the upper orchard. 

amount of dry hay to balance out the lush protein rich pasture going into their guts. Here at The Farm School, where we practice tall-grass grazing, we allow the pastures to grow taller than is typical, recognizing that this taller grass is acting like hay in the cow’s diet, providing them with all of the energy and fiber that they need. Our pastures are just too lush to maintain this balance right now, so we’ve had to add some more barn time and hay to the cow’s routine. They have been happy to spend more time inside out of the rain, and I’m hopeful this weather will make for some great fall grazing.

July 30th – August 4th

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The sheep are on some lush pasture. 

This was another week of remarkable weather here at The Farm School, with extremely high humidity all week, and several periods of torrential rain adding to the soakings that we’ve gotten over the past month of extended wet weather. We got more than four inches of rain in total this week, with 1.8 inches falling in just two hours on Friday afternoon, and another 1.5 on Saturday morning. All of this rainy weather, stretching back over the past several weeks, is the product of a unique weather pattern that has been dominating almost the entire East Coast since the start of July. The system, called a Bermuda or Azores High, is an enormous high-pressure system centered and stalled over the Atlantic near Bermuda, and spinning clockwise. This high-pressure system, like most of these classic weather drivers, is clear and dry at its center, but the dynamic spinning pattern that it has stirred up is pulling tropical air and moisture from the Caribbean and funneling it in an almost completely south-to-north flow over New England. The high is relatively stationary, so the flow of moisture and rain can be nearly continuous, leading to the very high rain totals that we have had here over the past month. Our spring and early summer were definitely characterized by a lack of rain, and conditions have completely swung to the other extreme by now. The effect of all of this rain on the farm is complex, from making the pastures grow quickly and lush, to filling our fruiting crops with water until they actually burst. The issue that has been front and center for me is the explosion of harmful bacteria on the farm, flourishing in these constantly warm and wet conditions. This extended period of heat,

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The broiler chickens moved over the left side, and not on the right. 

humidity, and rain has made a perfect environment for bacterial to grow, and I believe that we are seeing the effect in our livestock. We have lost two sheep in the past two weeks to unknown causes, and I am suspicious that they came down with bacterial pneumonia or another bacterial infection. We also had to put down a cow in the dairy this week who developed a very aggressive case of acute gangrenous mastitis just after freshening. These are not typical events for us here at the farm, and it seems to me that the elevated levels of bacteria growing throughout the farm environment, in the damp soil, on the floor of the barn, in the bedding around the sheep hay feeder, and on just about every surface, are putting all of our livestock under added health pressure.

This was the last week of summer camp at the Program for Visiting Schools, and we

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The beef herd seeking shade in this hot weather. 

ended with the oldest kids on the farm for a full two weeks of work and fun. Most of these campers have been coming to the farm for years and years, and we have known them from when they were little. Now they are huge hard working farmers, they know these fields, gardens, forests and the livestock better than we do, and they put in an incredible amount of work over their too-short stay here. The long session of camp feels like an extended family reunion, and it is a stretch of the year that every farmer here really looks forward to.

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A look at the processing side of the new dairy facility. 

Our dairy facility renovation keeps moving forward, and this week we got the plastic panelling up on the walls, and the sinks in place. State regulations call for a three-bay sink and a hand-washing sink in every work room, plus another hand-washing sink in the little testing lab just off the processing room. That is a total of five sinks, two of which are long three-bay models, and quite a bit of plumbing. Our wonderful plumber came out and got most of that work done Friday, before he heads out of town for long summer vacation, so we are hopeful that the remainder of the work in there can go ahead now that the sinks are in place. The shape of the work spaces has really become clear over the past week, and it feels like the concept that we imagined and drew out will be a solid functional work area for the program. It is difficult to really know how a space will feel through only a drawing, to know if the dimensions will accommodate the people, equipment and movement that is inherent in a working space, but things feel good in our new facility now with the walls, doors and windows in place.

July 22nd – July 30th

IMG_6706This was another remarkably rainy week here at The Farm School, with heavy rain almost every day. Our new rain gauge was busy keeping score, and we ended the week having gotten somewhere more than three inches of additional rain. That is on top of the over two inches of rain that fell on the last two Wednesdays in row, so now things are truly saturated. We typically don’t see rainfall like this in July, and these wet conditions are in contrast to the expected dry season we are accustomed to in the summer. The moisture is going to setup a strong second cutting of hay in this area to compliment the healthy first cutting that is already in the barn. All of this rain was the product of a large circulating weather system, spinning counter clockwise with its center south and west of us. The system was quite large and powerful, and stalled in just the right spot to draw a river of warm wet tropical air up from the south, out over the ocean to get well and truly saturated, and then over New England. Areas of rain and thunderstorms moved almost perfectly south to north over us, and seemed to come in a nearly continuous stream. The storm system wavered east and west a bit each day, moving the stream of rain accordingly, almost like a farmer watering trays in the greenhouse, and by Friday it finally started moving east and away from us for good.

We have been working over the past couple of months to renovate and rehabilitate the barn that the beef herd winters in, and we finally got all of last winter’s manure and bedding out this week. The cows generated a really amazing depth of bedding and manure this past winter, more than I have ever seen in there by far, and this year’s dig out was a serious undertaking. We had some big days of digging in there, and some smaller ones, but I am happy to report that it is finally finished. We now have a large beautiful pile of composting manure out in the yard to turn and age before spreading next fall. Most of our attention has been paid to the hay loft of the barn, cleaning it out and repairing it so that we can start storing hay in there with the confidence that it is weather proof. With that area completed, we need to turn our focus to the downstairs area where the cows take shelter, and that required that the bedding be removed. Now we can really see the space, and can envision how we are going to expand and improve the cow’s area. They have done some damage to the walls over the years that they have been occupying the space, and we are eager to give them more room to stretch out, so we are now investigating how to maximize their area and to build in a way that can withstand their pressure. We have dreams of developing the barn that they winter in into a real headquarters for our livestock operations, with the capacity to hold all of our various livestock equipment and supplies, so this renovation is part of a larger dream to develop the entire facility. We hope to improve the barn space for the cows, improve the round-bale feeding system, build a poll barn to hold equipment, renovate the loading the chute, and establish a large functioning composting yard. We anticipate this being a multi year project, and we are trying to bite off pieces that we can bring to full completion each year, until it’s all done.

Squash harvest is winding down, tomato harvest is ramping up, the peas are just aboutIMG_6700 finished, and the cucumbers are at their peak. The rain of the past week will change everything though, loading vegetables with water, and giving every plant all the moisture they need for some really vigorous growth. The hoop-house tomatoes, out of the weather and supplied consistently with irrigation, are immune to these changes, and are coming along beautifully. The grape vines are absolutely loaded with fruit, there are no apples or peaches, and we have been busily harvesting raspberries and blueberries whenever the rain lets up. We usually face two truly hot months of summer, with a varying tastes of summery conditions before and after, and here at the end of July we are at the halfway point of this hot stetch. July was a remarkable month, with the hottest weather that I have ever seen here in the twelve years I’ve been farming this land, and now the rainiest stretch I’ve ever seen. I can’t wait to see what August brings.

July 15th – July 22nd

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The pullets are out on pasture. 

We use our broiler chickens and laying hens to improve and renovate pastures here at The Farm School, trying to take advantage of the wonderful food that they provide, and also their strong manure and scratching behavior. We have seen some really positive results from both types of birds, and we continue to look for ways to do even more.

The broilers, or meat birds, are run on the pasture in eight by ten foot movable houses. Each house has a hanging feeder and a waterer in it, and sits on wooden skids so that we can slide the whole thing along over the grass. There is no floor, so the birds are right on the ground, and have access to the grass, bugs and other treasures that they can find. The birds go in there after about a month in the heated brooder, or when they have just about fully transitioned from baby down to real feathers. The full feathering makes them almost water proof, and although they are under cover and out of the weather in their houses, we’ve found that that extra bit of protection really helps to keep them comfortable and growing well. We start with fifty birds in each pasture house when they are small, and divide them into more and more houses as they grow, reducing the number of birds in each house and giving everyone a bit more room and time at the feeder. The houses are moved ahead one full length per day to start, and we step up to one move per chore when they grow larger. This model ensures that the birds deposit an eight by ten foot rectangle of manure every day, or twice per day, as they move across the pastures, blanketing any area that we can run the houses over with a very powerful dose of fertilizer. Chicken manure has the highest NPK content of any livestock manure, and we have found it to have a very positive effect on the pasture. The birds do eat and trample the grass a bit, but the benefits of the manure seem to far outweigh their impact on the grass.

We run our laying hens in large egg-mobiles out on the pastures during the summer.

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The beef herd was in the orchard, cleaning up. 

Each egg-mobile is a converted hay wagon, keeping the nice metal running gear and tires, and building a house on top of that. These egg-mobiles provide the hens with shelter, food and water, laying boxes, and the electricity to power the fences that enclose the whole setup. We try to move these houses to fresh pasture once per week, though we have found that a second week can give the birds the added time that they need to really denude a section of pasture, if that’s what we’re trying to accomplish. We have about one hundred layers in each house, with a couple of roosters in there to keep a watch out for hawks. With their larger area to roam, the layers do not deposit manure as consistently as the broilers do, though they leave quite a bit right where the egg-mobile is parked. The layers do scratch through the pasture, eating and pecking through everything that they find. This process opens the thatch of older mismanaged pastures, giving seed and other plants a chance to grow. If we combine this action of the layers, and their strong manure, with some seeding behind them, we have been able to get some great results in converting older pastures into something more palatable for our cows and sheep.

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A look at our new rain gauge, in use! 

We had more than two inches of rain on Tuesday, renewing the soil moisture and setting the farm up for another good period of growth heading into the second half of July. Rain events like that really help to make up for the shortage of rain that we have had this spring and summer, though we certainly would like to see that much rain spread over a longer period rather than falling all at once. We have quite a bit of rain forecasted for next week too, so I am hopeful that we’ll have a strong period of growth moving forward.